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Evolution of volcanism in graben and horst structures along the Cenozoic Cameroon Line (Africa): implications for tectonic evolution and mantle source composition

Abstract : Tombel graben and Mounts Bambouto are two volcanic fields of the typical system of alternating graben and horst structure of the Cameroon Volcanic Line. Tombel graben is a young volcanic field, whereas Mounts Bambouto horst is an old stratovolcano with calderas. Volcanic products in both settings have a signature close to that of Ocean Island Basalt implying a major role of FOZO (focal zone) component and varied contribution of depleted mantle (DMM) and enriched mantle (EM) components. The Cameroon Volcanic Line is a hot line essentially resulting from passive rifting. Eocene to Recent intraplate basaltic volcanism in the study area was probably a result of mantle upwelling coupled with lithospheric extension. The olivine basaltic magma of horst volcanoes evolved in a large-scale, steady-state magmatic reservoir via crystal fractionation and limited contamination to highly differentiated alkaline lavas (trachyte and phonolite). Conversely, rapid ascent of lavas along multiple fault lines of graben structures produced less evolved lavas (hawaiite) within small reservoirs. This model, evaluated for the study area, involves mantle upwelling inside zones of weakness in the lithosphere after intra-continental extension. It can be applied to other parts of the Cameroon Volcanic Line as well, and is similar to that described in other intra-continental rift-related areas in Africa.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 8, 2008 - 10:30:09 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, September 17, 2020 - 3:06:33 AM

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D. G. Nkouathio, A. Kagou Dongmo, J.M Bardintzeff, P. Wandji, H. Bellon, et al.. Evolution of volcanism in graben and horst structures along the Cenozoic Cameroon Line (Africa): implications for tectonic evolution and mantle source composition. Mineralogy and Petrology, Springer Verlag, 2008, 94 (3-4), pp.287-303. ⟨10.1007/s00710-008-0018-1⟩. ⟨insu-00345000⟩

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