A. Aarab and E. , Genèse et differentiation d'un magma tholeitique en domaine extensif intracontinental: l'exemple du magmatisme pre-orogenique des Jebilet (Maroc Hercynien) Unpublished thesis, p.253, 1995.

. Aarab, E. Beauchamp, J. Aarab, and . Beauchamp, Le magmatisme carbonifère préorogénique des Jebilet centrales (Maroc) Précisions pétrographiques et sédimentaires. Implications géodynamiques, Comptes Rendus de l, Académie des Sciences Paris (Série II), vol.304, pp.169-175, 1987.

M. T. Barrett, W. H. Barrett, and . Maclean, Mass changes in hydrothermal alteration zones associated with VMS deposits of the Noranda area, Exploration and Mining Geology, vol.3, pp.131-160, 1994.

M. T. Barrett, W. H. Barrett, and . Maclean, Volcanic sequences, lithogeochemistry, and hydrothermal alteration in some bimodal volcanic-associated massive sulphide systems, Reviews in Economic Geology, vol.8, pp.101-131, 1999.

J. Beauchamp and . Beauchamp, Le Carbonifère inférieur des Jebilet et de l'Atlas de Marrakech (Maroc): Migration et comblement d'un bassin marin, Bulletin Société Géologique de France, pp.7-13, 1984.

. Beauchamp, Les bassins d'avant-pays de la cha??ne hercynienne au Carbonif??re inf??rieur, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.28, issue.12, pp.2024-2041, 1991.
DOI : 10.1139/e91-183

. Bernard, Aperçu sur les amass sulfurés massifs des hercynides marocaines, Mineralium Deposita, vol.23, pp.104-114, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/bf00206659

. Bonatti, Classification and genesis of submarine iron?manganese deposits, Ferromanganese deposits from the ocean floor, Symposium volume, pp.149-165, 1972.

. Bordonaro, Le géosynclinal carbonifère sud-mésétien dans les Jebilet (Maroc); une corrélation avec la province pyriteuse du sud de l'Espagne, Compte Rendus Académie Sciences Paris, pp.288-1371, 1979.

K. Boström and . Boström, Origin and Fate of Ferromanganoan Active Ridge Sediments, Geology, vol.27, pp.147-243, 1973.
DOI : 10.1002/9781444304855.ch18

. Brunet, Les minéralisations à sulfures massifs de la région de Marrakech, Maroc: contexte géologique et exploration, Colloque ACFAS, vol.72, p.23, 2004.

N. Cathelineau, A chlorite solid solution geothermometer the Los Azufres (Mexico) geothermal system, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol.76, issue.3, pp.235-244, 1985.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00413350

A. L. Edwards, W. H. Edwards, and . Freeman, An Introduction to Linear Regression and Correlation, 1976.

. Marignac, Hydrothermal alteration, fluid flow and volume change in shear zones: the layered mafic?ultramafic Kettara intrusion (Jebilet Massif, Variscan belt, Morocco), Journal of Metamorphic Geology, vol.22, pp.25-43, 2004.

. Finlow-bates, T. Stumpfl, E. F. Finlow-bates, and . Stumpfl, The behaviour of socalled immobile elements in hydrothermally altered rocks associated with volcanogenic submarine?exhalative ore deposits, Mineralium Deposita, vol.16, pp.319-328, 1981.

R. V. Fisher and . Fisher, Mechanism of deposition from pyroclastic flows, American Journal of Science, vol.264, issue.5, pp.287-298, 1966.
DOI : 10.2475/ajs.264.5.350

C. E. Force, W. F. Force, and . Cannon, Depositional model for shallow-marine manganese deposits around black shale basins, Economic Geology, vol.83, issue.1, pp.93-117, 1988.
DOI : 10.2113/gsecongeo.83.1.93

. Franklin, Volcanic-associated massive sulphide deposits, Economic Geology 75th Anniversary, pp.485-627, 1981.

A. G. Galley and . Galley, Target vectoring using lithogeochemistry: applications to the exploration for volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits, Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Bulletin, vol.88, issue.990, pp.15-27, 1995.

. Galley, The subseafloor formation of volcanic-hosted massive sulphide: evidence from the Ansil deposit, Economic Geology, pp.90-2006, 1995.

H. L. Gibson and . Gibson, Volcano-hosted ore deposits, Volcanoes and the Environment, pp.333-386, 2005.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511614767.013

. Gibson, The spectrum of volcano-sedimentary environments hosting volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits of the Visean, Morocco, Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Annual Meeting, p.28, 2005.

. Gibson, Submarine volcanic processes, deposits and environments favourable for the location of volcanic-associated massive sulphide deposits, Reviews in Economic Geology, vol.8, pp.13-51, 1999.

J. A. Grant and . Grant, The isocon diagram; a simple solution to Gresens' equation for metasomatic alteration, Economic Geology, vol.81, issue.8, pp.1976-1982, 1986.
DOI : 10.2113/gsecongeo.81.8.1976

DOI : 10.2113/gsecongeo.99.5.1003

M. H. Hey and . Hey, A New Review of the Chlorites, Mineralogical Magazine, vol.30, issue.224, pp.277-292, 1954.
DOI : 10.1180/minmag.1954.030.224.01

. Ishikawa, Delineation of prospecting targets for Kuroko deposits based on modes of volcanism of underlying dacite and alteration halos, Mining Geology, vol.26, pp.105-117, 1976.

G. A. Jenner and . Jenner, Trace element geochemistry of igneous rocks; geochemical nomenclature and analytical geochemistry Trace Element Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks: Applications for Massive Sulphide Exploration, Geological Association of, Canada Short Course Notes, vol.12, pp.51-77, 1996.

B. Kharaka, Kharaka and I. Barnes, SOLMNEQ?solution?mineral equilibrium computations: U.S. Geological Survey Computer Contribution, National Technical Information Service PB-215, p.899, 1973.

M. P. Kranidiotis, W. H. Kranidiotis, and . Maclean, Systematics of chlorite alteration at the Phelps Dodge massive sulfide deposit, Matagami, Quebec, Economic Geology, vol.82, issue.7, pp.1898-1911, 1987.
DOI : 10.2113/gsecongeo.82.7.1898

K. B. Krauskopf and . Krauskopf, Separation of manganese from iron in sedimentary processes, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol.12, issue.1-2, pp.61-81, 1957.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(57)90018-2

. Laflèche, Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Archean mafic volcanic rocks of the southern Abitibi Belt, Qu??bec, Precambrian Research, vol.57, issue.3-4, pp.207-241, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0301-9268(92)90003-7

C. J. Lagarde, P. Lagarde, and . Choukroune, Cisaillement ductile et granitoides syntectoniques; l'exemple du Massif Hercynien des Jebilet (Maroc), Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, pp.299-307, 1982.
DOI : 10.2113/gssgfbull.S7-XXIV.2.299

1. Leblanc and . Leblanc, Amas sulfuré formé par injection des sills dans des sédiments

. Exemple-d-'hajar-marrakech and . Maroc, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des, Sciences Paris, vol.316, pp.499-504, 1993.

D. R. Lentz and . Lentz, Trace-element systematics of felsic volcanic rocks associated with massive-sulphide deposits in the Bathurst Mining Camp: petrogenetic, tectonic and chemostratigraphic implications for VMS deposits Trace Element Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks: Applications for Massive Sulphide Exploration, Geological Association of Canada, pp.359-402, 1996.

. Lentz, Chemostratigraphy and depositional environment of an Ordovician sedimentary section across the, 1996.

. Lentz, Preliminary geochemical interpretation of metalliferous sedimentary rocks in the Miramichi Anticlinorium, New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources and Energy, Minerals and Energy Division, Miscellaneous Report, vol.18, pp.91-111, 1994.

. Lentz, Chemostratigraphy, alteration, and oxygen isotope trends in a drillhole profile through the Heath Steele B Zone deposit stratigraphic sequence, The Canadian Mineralogist, vol.35, pp.841-874, 1997.

. Lesher, Trace-element geochemistry of ore-associated and barren, felsic metavolcanic rocks in the Superior Province, Canada, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.23, issue.2, pp.222-237, 1986.
DOI : 10.1139/e86-025

. Lescuyer, Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous peak sulphide mineralization in the Western Hercynides, Mineralium Deposita, vol.33, issue.1-2, pp.208-220, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s001260050141

. Ludden, Archean metavolcanics from the Rouyn???Noranda district, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Quebec. 2. Mobility of trace elements and petrogenetic constraints, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.19, issue.12, pp.2276-2287, 1982.
DOI : 10.1139/e82-200

P. J. Macgeehan and . Macgeehan, The geochemistry of altered volcanic rocks at Matagami, Quebec: a geothermal model for massive sulphide genesis, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.15, issue.4, pp.551-570, 1977.
DOI : 10.1139/e78-061

K. W. Maclean, P. Maclean, and . Kranidiotis, Immobile elements as monitors of mass transfer in hydrothermal alteration; Phelps Dodge massive sulfide deposit, Matagami, Quebec, Economic Geology, vol.82, issue.4, pp.951-962, 1987.
DOI : 10.2113/gsecongeo.82.4.951

. Marcoux, Draa Sfar: a Hercynian pyrrhotite?Zn?Cu?Pb ore deposit in the Jebilet, Morocco. Mineralogy, geochemistry and deformation as constrains for a genetic model features, Ore Geology Reviews

J. B. Maynard and . Maynard, Geochemistry of Sedimentary Ore Deposits, p.pp, 1983.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4613-9493-8

N. Nakamura, . Nakamura, R. Determination-of, . Ba, . Fe et al., Determination of REE, Ba, Fe, Mg, Na and K in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites, carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites, pp.757-775, 1974.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7037(74)90149-5

M. A. Piqué, A. Piqué, and . Michard, Moroccan Hercynides; a synopsis; the Paleozoic sedimentary and tectonic evolution at the northern margin of West Africa, American Journal of Science, vol.289, issue.3, pp.286-330, 1989.
DOI : 10.2475/ajs.289.3.286

. Prior, Rare Earth and high field strength element geochemistry of the Kidd creek rhyolites, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada: evidence for Archean felsic volcanism and volcanogenic massive sulphide ore formation in an Iceland-Style rift environment, 1999.

R. R. Roberts, E. J. Roberts, and . Reardon, Alteration and ore-forming processes at Mattagami Lake Mine, Quebec, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.15, issue.1, pp.1-21, 1978.
DOI : 10.1139/e78-001

H. M. Rietveld and . Rietveld, A profile refinement method for nuclear and magnetic structures, Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol.2, issue.2, pp.65-71, 1969.
DOI : 10.1107/S0021889869006558

H. G. Riverin, J. Riverin, and . Hodgson, Wall-rock alteration at the Millenbach Cu-Zn mine, Noranda, Quebec, Economic Geology, vol.75, issue.3, pp.424-444, 1980.
DOI : 10.2113/gsecongeo.75.3.424

C. J. Slack, P. R. Slack, and . Coad, Multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events in the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Timmins, Ontario: evidence from tourmalines and chlorites, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.26, issue.4, pp.694-715, 1989.
DOI : 10.1139/e89-059

M. Taylor, . R. St, S. M. Taylor, and . Mclennan, Composition and evolution of the continental crust, Blackwell Scientific Publications, p.312, 1985.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511575358.014

F. J. Winchester, P. A. Winchester, and . Floyd, Geochemical discrimination of different magma series and their differentiation products using immobile elements, Chemical Geology, vol.20, pp.325-343, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0009-2541(77)90057-2

S. R. Zierenberg, W. C. Zierenberg, and . Shanks, Sediment alteration associated with massive sulphide formation in Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge: the importance of seawater mixing and magnesium metasomatism, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, vol.2022, pp.257-277, 1994.