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Microphysical and optical properties of atmospheric ice crystals at South Pole Station.

Abstract : In early February 2001 (during the austral summer), over 900 000 digital images of ice crystals were recorded at the South Pole using two ground-based cloud particle imagers (CPIs). Of these, 721 572 crystals Ͼ50 m were classified into crystal habits. When sorted by number, 30% of the crystals were rosette shaped (mixed-habit rosettes, platelike polycrystals, and rosette shapes with side planes), 45% were diamond dust (columns, thick plates, and plates), and 25% were irregular. When sorted by area, rosette shapes comprised 50%, diamond dust 30% and irregular 20%. By mass, the percentages were 57% rosette shapes, 23% diamond dust, and 20% irregular. Particle size distributions as a function of maximum dimension and equivalent radius are compared with previous studies. Particles are generally found to be slightly larger than previous austral wintertime studies. In 2002, a polar nephelometer (PN) that measures scattering phase function was incorporated with one of the CPIs. Correlated measurements between the two instruments showed that 22°and 46°peaks in the phase function were present when diamond dust was recorded by the CPI, but not when rosette shapes were present. Visual observations confirmed the presence of 22°and 46°a tmospheric halos in some, but not all, of the diamond dust events. No visual halos were observed when rosette shapes were precipitating. Average PN phase functions are presented for diamond dust and rosette shapes. The diamond dust and rosette-shaped ice crystals appear to be very similar in shape to those observed by CPIs in cirrus clouds. Cloud conditions at the South Pole that were associated with various crystal types are discussed, as are some effects of blowing snow.
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R.P. Lawson, B.A. Baker, P. Zmarly, D. O'Connor, Q. Mo, et al.. Microphysical and optical properties of atmospheric ice crystals at South Pole Station.. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, American Meteorological Society, 2006, 45 (11), pp.1505-1524. ⟨10.1175/JAM2421.1⟩. ⟨insu-00152567⟩

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