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Resonance in the K2-19 system is at odds with its high reported eccentricities

Abstract : K2-19 hosts a planetary system composed of two outer planets, b and c, with size of 7.0 ± 0.2 R⊕ and 4.1 ± 0.2 R⊕, and an inner planet, d, with a radius of 1.11 ± 0.05 R⊕. A recent analysis of Transit-Timing Variations (TTVs) suggested b and c are close to but not in 3:2 mean motion resonance (MMR) because the classical resonant angles circulate. Such an architecture challenges our understanding of planet formation. Indeed, planet migration through the protoplanetary disc should lead to a capture into the MMR. Here, we show that the planets are in fact, locked into the 3:2 resonance despite circulation of the conventional resonant angles and aligned periapses. However, we show that such an orbital configuration cannot be maintained for more than a few hundred million years due to the tidal dissipation experienced by planet d. The tidal dissipation remains efficient because of a secular forcing of the innermost planet eccentricity by planets b and c. While the observations strongly rule out an orbital solution where the three planets are on close to circular orbits, it remains possible that a fourth planet is affecting the TTVs such that the four planet system is consistent with the tidal constraints.
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Antoine C Petit, Erik A Petigura, Melvyn B Davies, Anders Johansen. Resonance in the K2-19 system is at odds with its high reported eccentricities. MNRAS, 2020, 496 (3), pp.3101 - 3111. ⟨10.1093/mnras/staa1736⟩. ⟨hal-02975584⟩

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