K. Ambouta, Contribution à l'édaphologie de la brousse tigrée de l'Ouest nigérien, 1984.

J. M. Ambouta, Définition et caractérisation des structures de végétation contractée au Sahel: cas de la brousse tigrée de l'ouest nigérien, Fonctionnement et Gestion des Écosystèmes Forestiers Contractés Sahéliens. John Libbey Eurotext, pp.41-57, 1997.

C. Barbey and A. Couté, Croûtes à cyanophycées sur les dunes du Sahel mauritanien, pp.732-736, 1976.

J. Belnap and J. S. Gardner, Soil microstructure in soils of the Colorado Plateau: the role of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus, Great Basin Naturalist, vol.53, pp.40-47, 1993.

B. Bergman, J. R. Gallon, A. N. Rai, and L. J. Stal, N2 Fixation by non-heterocystous cyanobacteria, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol.19, issue.3, pp.139-185, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-6445(96)00028-9

R. J. Beymer and J. M. Klopatek, Potential contribution of carbon by microphytic crusts in pinyon-juniper woodlands, Arid Land Research and Management, vol.5, issue.3, pp.187-198, 1991.
DOI : 10.1080/15324989109381279

L. M. Bresson and C. Valentin, Comparative micromorphological study of soil crusting in temperate and arid environments, Trans. 14th Int. Congr. Soil Sci, pp.238-243, 1990.

T. D. Brock, EFFECT OF WATER POTENTIAL ON A MICROCOLEUS (CYANOPHYCEAE) FROM A DESERT CRUST, Journal of Phycology, vol.35, issue.3, pp.316-320, 1975.
DOI : 10.2307/1934890

J. D. Brotherson and S. R. Rushforth, Influence of cryptogamic crusts on moisture relationships of soils in Navajo National Monument, Arizona. Great Basin Naturalist, vol.43, pp.73-78, 1983.

R. E. Cameron and J. R. Devaney, Antarctic Soil Algal Crusts: Scanning Electron and Optical Microscope Study, Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, vol.89, issue.2, pp.264-273, 1970.
DOI : 10.2307/3224384

S. E. Campbell, Soil stabilization by a prokaryotic desert crust: Implications for Precambrian land biota, Origins of Life, vol.130, issue.4, pp.335-348, 1979.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00926826

S. E. Campbell, J. S. Seeler, and S. Golubic, Desert crust formation and soil stabilization, Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, vol.35, issue.2, pp.217-228, 1989.
DOI : 10.2216/i0031-8884-20-1-65.1

D. N. Cole, Trampling disturbance and recovery of cryptogamic soil crusts in Grand Canyon National Park, Great Basin Naturalist, vol.50, pp.321-325, 1990.

A. F. Cornet, C. Montana, J. P. Delhoume, and J. Lopez-portillo, Water Flows and the Dynamics of Desert Vegetation Stripes, Landscape Boundaries. Consequences for Biotic Diversity and Ecological Flows, pp.327-345, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4612-2804-2_16

J. M. Herbès, C. Valentin, and J. M. Thiéry, Synthèse des connaissances acquises sur la brousse tigrée nigérienne: hypothèse sur la genèse et les facteurs déterminant les différentes structures contractées, Fonctionnement et Gestion des Écosystèmes Forestiers Contractés Sahéliens. John Libbey Eurotext, pp.131-152, 1997.

C. Défarge, J. Trichet, A. M. Jaunet, M. Robert, J. Tribble et al., Texture of microbial sediments revealed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy, J. Sedimentary Res, vol.66, pp.935-947, 1996.

D. Dulieu, A. Gaston, and J. Darley, La dégradation des pâturages de la région de N'Djamena (Rép. du Tchad) en relation avec la présence de cyanophycées psammophiles: étude préliminaire, pp.181-190, 1977.

D. J. Eldridge, Cryptogams, vascular plants, and soil hydrological relations: some preliminary results from the semiarid woodlands of eastern Australia, Great Basin Naturalist, vol.53, pp.48-58, 1993.

D. J. Eldridge, Cryptogam cover and soil surface condition: Effects on hydrology on a semiarid woodland soil, Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, vol.4, issue.3, pp.207-217, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/S0065-2504(08)60055-0

D. J. Eldridge and R. S. Greene, Assessment of sediment yield by splash erosion on a semi-arid soil with varying cryptogam cover, Journal of Arid Environments, vol.26, issue.3, pp.221-232, 1994.
DOI : 10.1006/jare.1994.1025

D. J. Eldridge and P. I. Kinnell, Assessment of erosion rates from microphyte-dominated calcareous soils under rain-impacted flow, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol.35, issue.3, pp.475-489, 1997.
DOI : 10.1071/S96072

J. Greigert, Description des formations crétacés et tertiaires du bassin des Iullemmeden (Afrique occidentale) Publications de la Direction Mines et Géologie, p.234, 1966.

K. T. Harper and R. Pendleton, Cyanobacteria and cyanolichens: can they enhance availability of essential minerals for higher plants?, Great Basin Naturalist, vol.53, pp.59-72, 1993.

A. O. Isichei, Nitrogen fixation by blue-green algal soil crusts in Nigerian savannah, Nitrogen Cycling in West African Ecosystems. SCOPE-UNEP International Nitrogen Unit, pp.191-198, 1980.

D. L. Jeffries, J. M. Klopatek, S. O. Link, B. Jr, and H. , Acetylene reduction by cryptogamic crusts from a blackbrush community as related to resaturation and dehydration, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.24, issue.11, pp.1101-1105, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(92)90059-7

J. R. Johansen, CRYPTOGAMIC CRUSTS OF SEMIARID AND ARID LANDS OF NORTH AMERICA, Journal of Phycology, vol.29, issue.2, pp.140-147, 1993.
DOI : 10.1111/j.0022-3646.1993.00140.x

B. Klubek and J. Skujins, Heterotrophic N2-fixation in arid soil crusts, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.12, issue.3, pp.229-236, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/0038-0717(80)90066-8

O. L. Lange, G. J. Kidron, B. Büdel, A. Meyer, E. Kilian et al., Taxonomic Composition and Photosynthetic Characteristics of the `Biological Soil Crusts' Covering Sand Dunes in the Western Negev Desert, Functional Ecology, vol.6, issue.5, pp.519-527, 1992.
DOI : 10.2307/2390048

W. L. Loope and G. F. Gifford, Influence of a soil microfloral crust on select properties of soils under Pinyon-Juniper in southeastern Utah, J. Soil Water Conserv, vol.27, pp.164-167, 1972.

M. Issa, O. Trichet, J. Défarge, C. Valentin, C. Rajot et al., Micromorphology of microbiotic crusts from Niger soils, 1998.

H. F. Mayland, H. T. Mcintosh, and W. H. Fuller, Fixation of isotopic nitrogen on a semiarid soil by algal crust organisms, Proc. 30, pp.56-60, 1966.

M. Neuman, C. M. Maxwell, C. Boulton, and J. W. , Wind transport of sand surfaces crusted with photoautotrophic microorganisms, CATENA, vol.27, issue.3-4, pp.229-247, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0341-8162(96)00023-9

A. C. Neumann, C. D. Gebelein, and T. P. Scoffin, The composition, structure and erodability of subtidal mats, Abaco, Bahamas, J. Sedimentary Petrol, vol.40, pp.274-297, 1970.

P. Ouedraogo, Rôle des termites dans la structure et la dynamique d'une brousse tigrée soudano-sahélienne, Thèse de doctorat, p.282, 1997.

A. Pentecost and R. Riding, Calcification in cyanobacteria, Biomineralization in Lower Plants and Animals, pp.73-90, 1986.

R. C. Rychert and J. Skujins, Nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae-lichen crusts in the Great Basin Desert, Proc. 38, pp.768-771, 1974.

L. J. Stal, Physiological ecology of cyanobacteria in microbial mats and other communities, New Phytologist, vol.19, issue.1, pp.1-32, 1995.
DOI : 10.1038/362834a0

J. M. Thiéry, J. M. Herbès, and C. Valentin, A Model Simulating the Genesis of Banded Vegetation Patterns in Niger, The Journal of Ecology, vol.83, issue.3, pp.497-507, 1995.
DOI : 10.2307/2261602

J. M. Tisdall and J. M. Oades, Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils, Journal of Soil Science, vol.29, issue.2, pp.141-163, 1982.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1982.tb01755.x

E. Verrecchia, A. Yair, G. J. Kidron, and K. Verrecchia, Physical properties of the psammophile cryptogamic crust and their consequences to the water regime of sandy soils, north-western Negev Desert, Israel, Journal of Arid Environments, vol.29, issue.4, pp.427-437, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-1963(95)80015-8