R. P. Agrawal, Water and nutrient management in sandy soils by compaction, Soil and Tillage Research, vol.19, issue.2-3, pp.121-130, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-1987(91)90081-8

R. P. Agrawal, B. S. Jhorar, J. S. Dhankar, and M. Raj, Compaction of sandy soils for irrigation management, Irrigation Science, vol.8, issue.4, pp.227-232, 1987.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00257507

R. P. Agrawal and . Kumar, Nitrogen movement as influenced by initial soil wetness, soil texture and soil structure of surface layer, Nitrogen Assimilation and Crop Productivity. Proc. Natl. Symp. Hisar, pp.260-268, 1976.

I. R. Ahuja, J. W. Namey, R. E. Green, and D. R. Nielsen, Macroporosity to Characterize Spatial Variability of Hydraulic Conductivity and Effects of Land Management1, Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol.48, issue.4, pp.699-702, 1984.
DOI : 10.2136/sssaj1984.03615995004800040001x

V. K. Arora, P. R. Gajri, and H. S. Uppal, Puddling, irrigation, and transplanting-time effects on productivity of rice???wheat system on a sandy loam soil of Punjab, India, Soil and Tillage Research, vol.85, issue.1-2, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.still.2005.01.015

A. G. Bengough and C. E. Mullins, Penetrometer resistance, root penetration resistance and root elongation rate in two sandy loam soils, Plant and Soil, vol.61, issue.1, pp.59-66, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02182016

A. T. Bennie and F. J. Botha, Effect of deep tillage and controlled traffic on root growth, water ?use efficiency and yield of irrigated maize and wheat. Soil and Tillage research, pp.85-95, 1986.

A. T. Bennie and G. N. Krynaw, Causes, adverse effects and control of soil compaction, South African Journal of Plant and Soil, vol.57, issue.2, pp.109-114
DOI : 10.1080/02571862.1985.10634148

C. L. Bielders and P. Baveye, Vertical particle segregation in structural crusts: experimental observations and the role of shear strain, Geoderma, vol.67, issue.3-4, pp.247-261, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7061(95)00012-D

C. L. Bielders and P. Baveye, Processes of structural crust formation on coarse-textured soils, European Journal of Soil Science, vol.20, issue.2, pp.221-232, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7061(92)90085-L

E. C. Bortoluzzi, Nature des constituants, propriétés chimiques et physiques des sols Influence de la gestion de sols sableux au Sud du Brésil, Thèse Institut National Agronomique, p.145, 2003.

A. Bruand, C. Hartmann, P. Santi-ratana-anupap, . Sindhusen, R. Poss et al., 2004 ? Composition, fabric, and porosity of an Arenic Haplustaff of Northeast Thailand: Relation to penetration resistance, pp.185-193

A. Casenave and C. Valentin, A runoff capability classification system based on surface features criteria in semi-arid areas of West Africa, Journal of Hydrology, vol.130, issue.1-4, pp.231-249
DOI : 10.1016/0022-1694(92)90112-9

K. Y. Chan, Strength characteristics of a potentially hardsetting soil under pasture and conventional tillage in the semi-arid region of Australia, Soil and Tillage Research, vol.34, issue.2, pp.105-113, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-1987(95)00456-3

C. J. Chartres, Soil crusting in Australia Soil crusting: chemical and physical processes Advances in Soil Science, pp.339-366, 1992.

A. Chauvel, Recherches sur la transformation des sols ferrallitiques dand la zone tropicale à saisons contrastée. Evolution et réorganisation des sols rouges de moyenne Casamance (Sénégal) Travaux et Documents de l'ORSTOM, p.532, 1977.

Y. Coquet, Etude in situ des phénomènes de retraitgonflement des sols. Application à deux sols tropicaux, Thèse Université d'Orléans, p.355, 1995.

L. W. Dekker and C. J. Ritsema, How water moves in a water repellent sandy soil: 1. Potential and actual water repellency, Water Resources Research, vol.34, issue.9, pp.2507-2517, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/94WR00749

Z. G. Duan, G. Wang, H. L. Xiao, and Z. B. Dong, Abiotic soil crust formation on dunes in an etremely arid environment: A 43-year sequential study. Arid Land Research and Management, pp.43-54, 2003.

D. Preez, C. C. Bennie, A. T. Burger, R. Du, and T. , Inloed van implement-verkeer en besproeiing op grondverdigting te Vaalharts. [Effects of implement traffic and irrigation on soil compaction at Vaalharts], Agrochemophysics, vol.13, pp.7-12, 1981.

D. J. Eldridge and J. F. Leys, Exploring some relationships between biological soil crusts, soil aggregation and wind erosion, Journal of Arid Environments, vol.53, issue.4, pp.457-466
DOI : 10.1006/jare.2002.1068

R. T. Faria and P. H. Caramori, Caracterizaçao fisico hidrica de um latossolo roxo distrifico do municipio de Londrina, PR. Pesquisa, Agropec. Bras, vol.21, pp.1303-1311, 1986.

F. Qi, E. Kunihiko, and C. Guodong, Soil water and chemical characteristics of sandy soils and their significance to land reclamation, Journal of Arid Environments, vol.51, issue.1, pp.35-54
DOI : 10.1006/jare.2001.0928

J. C. Fiès, Recherche d'une interprétation texturale de la porosité des sols, Annales Agronomiques, vol.22, pp.655-685, 1971.

J. C. Fiès, S. Hénin, and G. Monnier, Etude de quelques lois régissant la porosité de matériaux meubles, Annales Agronomiques, vol.23, pp.621-653, 1972.

J. C. Fiès and P. Stengel, Densit?? texturale de sols naturels II. - El??ments d'interpr??tation, Agronomie, vol.1, issue.8, pp.659-666, 1981.
DOI : 10.1051/agro:19810807

D. Goossens, Effect of soil crusting on the emission and transport of wind-eroded sediment: field measurements on loamy sandy soil, Geomorphology, vol.58, issue.1-4, pp.145-160, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-555X(03)00229-0

E. L. Greacen, K. P. Barley, and D. R. Farell, The mechanics of root growth in soils, with particular reference to the implications for root distribution, pp.256-268, 1968.

DOI : 10.1097/00010694-199311000-00006

C. Hartmann, R. Poss, and V. Singhatat, 1999 ? Soil compaction and plant growth in Northeast Thailand: The case of the Nam Phong soil series, Natural Resource Management Issues in the Korat Basin of Northeast Thailand: An Overview. IRRI, Khon Kaen, Thailand, pp.157-162

M. G. Hodnett and J. Tomasella, Marked differences between van Genuchten soil water-retention parameters for temperate and tropical soils: a new water-retention pedo-transfer functions developed for tropical soils, Geoderma, vol.108, issue.3-4, pp.155-180
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-7061(02)00105-2

R. F. Isbell, H. B. So, G. D. Smith, S. R. Raine, B. M. Schafer et al., 1995 ? Sealing, crusting and hardsetting conditions in Australian soils, Australian Society of Soil Science, pp.15-30

Z. U. Kapilevich, G. A. Pisentsky, and A. V. Vysochenko, Specific surface as a basic parameter for evaluating hydromelioration characteristics of mineral soils, Soviet Soil Science, vol.19, pp.68-76, 1987.

J. L. Janeau, J. P. Bricquet, O. Planchon, and C. Valentin, Soil crusting and infiltration on steep slopes in northern Thailand, European Journal of Soil Science, vol.56, issue.3, pp.543-554, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0341-8162(99)00053-3

D. F. Jaramillo, L. W. Dekker, C. J. Ritsema, and J. M. Hendrickx, Occurrence of soil water repellency in arid and humid climates, Journal of Hydrology, vol.231, issue.232, pp.231-232, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00187-6

N. S. Jayawardane, J. Blackwell, G. Kirchhof, and W. A. Muirhead, Slotting ? A deep tillage technique for ameliorating sodic, acid and other degraded subsoils and land treatment of waste, Subsoil Management Techniques, Advances in Soil Science, pp.109-146, 1995.

E. Mckyes, P. Nyamugafata, and K. W. Nyamapfene, Characterization of cohesion, friction and sensitivity of two hardsetting soils from Zimbabwe, Soil and Tillage Research, vol.29, issue.4, pp.357-366, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-1987(94)90108-2

S. S. Kukal and G. C. Aggarwal, Percolation losses of water in relation to puddling intensity and depth in a sandy loam rice (Oryza sativa) field, Agricultural Water Management, vol.57, issue.1, pp.49-59, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00037-9

S. S. Kukal and G. C. Aggarwal, Puddling depth and intensity effects in rice ? wheat system on a sandy loam soil. I. Development of subsurface compaction. Soil and Tillage Research, pp.1-8, 2003.

S. S. Kukal and G. C. Aggarwal, Puddling depth and intensity effects in rice ? wheat system on a sandy loam soil. II. Water use and crop performance. Soil and Tillage Research, pp.37-45, 2003.

S. S. Kukal and A. S. Sidhu, Percolation losses of water in relation to pre-puddling tillage and puddling intensity in a puddle sandy loam rice (Oryza sativa L.) field. Soil Tillage and Research, pp.1-8, 2004.

M. Lamotte, A. Bruand, F. X. Humbel, and A. J. Herbillon, A hard sandy-loam soil from semi-arid Northern Cameroon: I. Fabric of the groundmass, European Journal of Soil Science, vol.58, issue.2, pp.213-225
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7061(71)90042-5

M. Lamotte, A. Bruand, D. Ohnenstetter, P. Ildefonse, and G. Pédro, A hard sandy-loam soil from semi-arid Northern Cameroon: II. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the bonding agent, European Journal of Soil Science, vol.24, issue.2, pp.227-237
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7061(71)90042-5

G. Lesturgez, Densification des sols sableux sous culture mécanisée. Cas du Nord-Est Thaïlandais, Thèse Université Henri Poincaré Nancy 1, 2005.

G. Lesturgez, R. Poss, C. Hartmann, E. Bourdon, A. Noble et al., Roots of Stylosanthes hamata create macropores in the compact layer of a sandy soil, Plant and Soil, vol.260, issue.1/2, pp.101-109, 2004.
DOI : 10.1023/B:PLSO.0000030184.24866.aa

G. J. Ley, C. E. Mullins, and R. Lal, The potential restriction to root growth in structurally weak tropical soils, Soil and Tillage Research, vol.33, issue.2, pp.133-142, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-1987(94)00428-H

M. Issa, O. Trichet, J. Défarge, C. Couté, A. Valentin et al., Morphology and microstructure of microbiotic soil crusts on a tiger bush sequence Catena, pp.175-196, 1999.

C. E. Mullins, D. A. Macleod, K. H. Northcote, J. M. Tisdall, and J. M. Young, Hardsetting Soils: Behavior, Occurrence, and Management, Soil Degradation, Advances in Soil Science, pp.37-108, 1990.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4612-3322-0_2

C. E. Mullins and K. P. Panayiotopoulos, The strength of unsaturated mixtures of sand and kaolin and the concept of effective stress, Journal of Soil Science, vol.32, issue.3, pp.459-468, 1984.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1984.tb00303.x

C. E. Mullins, I. M. Young, A. G. Bengough, and G. J. Ley, ? Hard-setting soils. Soil Use and Management, pp.79-83, 1987.

R. Nicou, 1974 ? Contribution à l'étude et à l'amélioration de la porosité des sols sableux et sablo-argileux de la zone tropicale sèche, Conséquences agronomiques. L'Agronomie Tropicale, pp.1100-1127

R. Nicou, Le problème de la prise en masse à la dessiccation des sols sableux et sablo-argileux de la zone tropicale sèche, Agronomie Tropicale, vol.30, pp.325-343, 1976.

K. H. Northcote, 1979 ? A factual Key for the Recognition of Australian Soils

J. Nyamangara, J. Gotosa, and S. E. Mpofu, Cattle manure effects on structural stability and water retention capacity of a granitic sandy soil in Zimbabwe, Soil and Tillage Research, vol.62, issue.3-4, pp.157-162, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-1987(01)00215-X

M. E. Obi and P. O. Ebo, The effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil physical properties and maize production in a severely degraded sandy soil in southern Nigeria, Bioresource Technology, vol.51, issue.2-3, pp.117-123, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0960-8524(94)00103-8

J. A. Osunbitan, D. J. Oyedede, and K. O. Adekalu, Tillage effects on bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and strength of a loamy sand soil in southwestern Nigeria. Soil and Tillage Research, pp.57-64, 2005.

K. P. Panayiotopoulos and C. E. Mullins, Packing of sands, Journal of Soil Science, vol.13, issue.1, pp.129-139, 1985.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1985.tb00318.x

C. L. Prevedello, M. Kobiyama, G. A. Jacobs, and C. R. Divardin, Comparação dos métodos do perfil instantâneo e de van Genuchten na obtençáo da conductividade hidráulica de uma areia marinha, Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, vol.19, pp.1-5, 1995.

W. J. Rawls, D. L. Brakensiek, and K. E. Saxton, Estimation of Soil Water Properties, Transactions of the ASAE, vol.25, issue.5, pp.1316-1320, 1982.
DOI : 10.13031/2013.33720

D. C. Reicosky, R. B. Campbell, and C. W. Doty, Corn Plant Water Stress as Influenced by Chiseling, Irrigation, and Water Table Depth1, Agronomy Journal, vol.68, issue.3, pp.499-503, 1976.
DOI : 10.2134/agronj1976.00021962006800030015x

URL : https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/naldc/download.xhtml?id=17649&content=PDF

C. J. Ritsema and L. W. Dekker, How water moves in a water repellent sandy soil: 2. Dynamics of fingered flow, Water Resources Research, vol.18, issue.9, pp.2519-2531, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/94WR00750

F. J. Roberts and B. A. Carbon, Water repellence in sandy soils of South-Western Australia. II. Some chemical characteristics of the hydrophobic skins, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol.10, issue.1, pp.35-42, 1972.
DOI : 10.1071/SR9720035

P. K. Sharma and R. M. Bhagat, Puddling and compaction effects on water permeability of texturally different soils, Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science, vol.41, pp.1-6, 1993.

C. W. Smith, M. A. Johnston, and S. Lorentz, The effect of soil compaction and soil physical properties on the mechanical resistance of South African forestry soils, Geoderma, vol.78, issue.1-2, pp.93-111, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-7061(97)00029-3

C. W. Smith, M. A. Johnston, and S. Lorentz, Assessing the compaction susceptibility of South African forestry soils. I. The effect of soil type, water content and applied pressure on uni-axial compaction. Soil and Tillage Research, pp.53-73, 1997.

C. W. Smith, M. A. Johnston, and S. Lorentz, Assessing the compaction susceptibility of South African forestry soils. II. Soil properties affecting compactibility and compressibility. Soil and Tillage Research, pp.335-354, 1997.

S. Sombatpanit, C. W. Rose, C. A. Ciesiolka, and K. J. Coughlan, Soil and nutrient loss under rozelle (Hibiscus subdariffa L. var. altissima) at Khon Kaen, Thailand, Soil Technology, vol.8, issue.3, pp.235-241, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0933-3630(95)00022-4

DOI : 10.1097/00010694-199710000-00003

J. Tomasella and M. G. Hodnett, ESTIMATING SOIL WATER RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS FROM LIMITED DATA IN BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA, Soil Science, vol.163, issue.3, pp.190-200, 1998.
DOI : 10.1097/00010694-199803000-00003

C. Valentin and L. M. Bresson, Morphology, genesis and classification of surface crusts in loamy and sandy soils, Geoderma, vol.55, issue.3-4, pp.225-245
DOI : 10.1016/0016-7061(92)90085-L

C. Valentin and L. M. Bresson, 1998 ? Soil crusting, Methodology for Assessment of Soil Degradation. Advances in Soil Sciences, pp.89-107

A. Van-wambeke, 1992 ? Soils of the Tropics: Properties and Appraisal

A. E. Westmann and H. R. Hugill, THE PACKING OF PARTICLES1, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.13, issue.10, pp.767-779
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1930.tb16222.x

I. M. Young and C. E. Mullins, Water-suspensible solids and structural stability, Soil and Tillage Research, vol.19, issue.1, pp.89-94, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-1987(91)90112-B