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Experimental Constraints on the Origin of the 1991 Pinatubo Dacite

Abstract : Crystallization (dacite) and interaction (dacite–peridotite) experiments have been performed on the 1991 Pinatubo dacite (Luzon Island, Philippines) to constrain its petrogenesis. In the dacite–H2O system at 960 MPa, magnetite and either clinopyroxene (low H2O) or amphibole (high H2O) are the liquidus phases. No garnet is observed at this pressure. Dacite– peridotite interaction at 920 MPa produces massive orthopyroxene crystallization, in addition to amphibole ± phlogopite. Amphibole crystallizing in dacite at 960 MPa has the same composition as the aluminium-rich hornblende preserved in the cores of amphibole phenocrysts in the 1991 dacite, suggesting a high-pressure stage of dacite crystallization with high melt H2O contents (>10 wt %) at relatively low temperature (<950°C). The compositions of plagioclase, amphibole and melt inclusion suggest that the Pinatubo dacite was water-rich, oxidized and not much hotter than 900°C, when emplaced into the shallow magma reservoir in which most phenocrysts precipitated before the onset of the 1991 eruption. The LREE-enriched REE pattern of the whole-rock dacite demands garnet somewhere during its petrogenesis, which in turn suggests high-pressure derivation. Partial melting of subducted oceanic crust yields melts unlike the Pinatubo dacite. Interaction of these slab melts with sub-arc peridotite is unable to produce a Pinatubo type of dacite, nor is a direct mantle origin conceivable on the basis of our peridotite–dacite interaction experimental results. Dehydration melting of underplated basalts requires unrealistically high temperatures and does not yield dacite with the low FeO/MgO, and high H2O, Ni and Cr contents typical of the Pinatubo dacite. The most plausible origin of the Pinatubo dacite is via high-pressure fractionation of a hydrous, oxidized, primitive basalt that crystallized amphibole and garnet upon cooling. Dacite melts produced in this way were directly expelled from the uppermost mantle or lower crust to shallow-level reservoirs from which they erupted occasionally. Magmas such as the Pinatubo dacite may provide evidence for the existence of particularly H2O-rich conditions in the sub-arc mantle wedge rather than the melting of the young, hot subducting oceanic plate.
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Gaëlle Prouteau, Bruno Scaillet. Experimental Constraints on the Origin of the 1991 Pinatubo Dacite. Journal of Petrology, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2003, 44 (12), pp.2203-2241. ⟨10.1093/petrology/egg075⟩. ⟨hal-00069339⟩

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