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Standard-based Lexical Models for Automatically Structured Dictionaries

Abstract : Dictionaries could be considered as the most comprehensive reservoir of human knowledge, which carry not only the lexical description of words in one or more languages, but also the common awareness of a certain community about every known piece of knowledge in a time frame. Print dictionaries are the principle resources which enable the documentation and transfer of such knowledge. They already exist in abundant numbers, while new ones are continuously compiled, even with the recent strong move to digital resources. However, a majority of these dictionaries, even when available digitally, is still not fully structured due to the absence of scalable methods and techniques that can cover the variety of corresponding material. Moreover, the relatively few existing structured resources present limited exchange and query alternatives, given the discrepancy of their data models and formats. In this thesis we address the task of parsing lexical information in print dictionaries through the design of computer models that enable their automatic structuring. Solving this task goes hand in hand with finding a standardised output for these models to guarantee a maximum interoperability among resources and usability for downstream tasks. First, we present different classifications of the dictionaric resources to delimit the category of print dictionaries we aim to process. Second, we introduce the parsing task by providing an overview of the processing challenges and a study of the state of the art. Then, we present a novel approach based on a top-down parsing of the lexical information. We also outline the archiecture of the resulting system, called GROBID-Dictionaries, and the methodology we followed to close the gap between the conception of the system and its applicability to real-world scenarios. After that, we draw the landscape of the leading standards for structured lexical resources. In addition, we provide an analysis of two ongoing initiatives, TEI-Lex-0 and LMF, that aim at the unification of modelling the lexical information in print and electronic dictionaries. Based on that, we present a serialisation format that is inline with the schemes of the two standardisation initiatives and fits the approach implemented in our parsing system. After presenting the parsing and standardised serialisation facets of our lexical models, we provide an empirical study of their performance and behaviour. The investigation is based on a specific machine learning setup and series of experiments carried out with a selected pool of varied dictionaries. We try in this study to present different ways for feature engineering and exhibit the strength and the limits of the best resulting models. We also dedicate two series of experiments for exploring the scalability of our models with regard to the processed documents and the employed machine learning technique. Finally, we sum up this thesis by presenting the major conclusions and opening new perspectives for extending our investigations in a number of research directions for parsing entry-based documents.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03153438
Contributor : Mohamed Khemakhem <>
Submitted on : Friday, February 26, 2021 - 12:52:01 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 15, 2021 - 3:08:12 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-03153438, version 1

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Mohamed Khemakhem. Standard-based Lexical Models for Automatically Structured Dictionaries. Computation and Language [cs.CL]. Université de Paris, 2020. English. ⟨tel-03153438⟩

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