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Study of the influence of electrode material in the application of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes to removal of pharmaceutic pollutants from water

Abstract : Permanent production and use of organic chemicals for many purposes has resulted in their introduction and accumulation in the environment. Depending on their physicochemical properties they can be transported by different ways from the source to very remote regions of the planet. Many organic chemicals are used in agriculture as pesticides for cultures protection or nutrient. Residues of these chemicals can always be found in fields, and under the effect of precipitations they leach and pass in streams and rivers. Pharmaceuticals and personal health care products and other house holding chemicals are continuously introduced in the environment through municipal wastewaters. These substances exhibit, in most of the cases, perturbation effects towards the living organisms, moreover the effect of many of them is not known yet. Despite their concentration in water is low, the exposure of organisms for long periods can lead to negative consequences, but these effects cannot be measured instantly. In order to reduce or avoid the pollution of water with chemicals many water treatment methods has been developed like adsorption of pollutants on adsorbents, membrane filtration, microbiological treatment, chemical oxidation with oxidizing agents and advanced oxidation processes. Most of the methods used in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) do not completely destroy the organic contaminants or they only separate the contaminants from water. Then they have to be deposed somewhere else remaining always a potential source of contamination. Advanced oxidation processes and in particular electrochemical advanced oxidation processes are methods developed later and are proven as more effective as they can completely oxidize the organic matter in water. The subject of this thesis is the use of electro-Fenton, an electrochemical advanced oxidation process for efficient destruction of organic pollutants in aqueous medium. In this method, organic pollutants are eliminated by H hydroxyl radicals (high oxidation power species) which are produced in situ through the Fenton's reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+) itself generated in the solution electrochemically and continuously. In this process, the electrode material is of fundamental importance in order to have an efficient process, so we have studied at large extent the influence of both cathode and anode material in this work. Firstly a systematic study on the oxidation capacity of the process of amoxicillin (AMX) as model pollutant with several anodes materials: BDD, Pt, DSA, PbO2 Carbon felt, Graphite and Carbon fibre was realised. In all cases a stainless steel electrode was used as cathode. The degradation of AMX was followed by HPLC analysis whereas the mineralization efficiency ot the process was measured by total organic carbon analyser (TOC). This revealed that BDD was the most efficient anode for AMX oxidation and DSA was the weakest one. Carbon felt showed a characteristic behaviour; it was very efficient on AMX oxidation but it could not transform AMX to CO2 and H2O. Afterwards four anodes were tested for their influence on electro-Fenton process efficiency namely Pt, BDD, DSA and Carbon felt, the cathode was always carbon felt. Sulfamethazine (SMT) was used as model pollutant. Apparent rate constants have given only moderate values of mineralization for currents lower than 100 mA. Here again the BDD anode was distinguished for its excellent mineralization capacity owing to the additional hydroxyl radicals and other oxidizing species introduced in the system. When electro-Fenton applied good degradation and mineralization results were obtained even with the DSA anode (...)
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 30, 2014 - 9:02:09 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00985537, version 1



Flamur Sopaj. Study of the influence of electrode material in the application of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes to removal of pharmaceutic pollutants from water. Agricultural sciences. Université Paris-Est, 2013. English. ⟨NNT : 2013PEST1183⟩. ⟨tel-00985537⟩



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