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Vers de nouvelles matrices minérales pour l’immobilisation et la valorisation des déchets ultimes de l’incinération des déchets ménagers

Abstract : The overall objective of this thesis is to transform ultimate and hazardous waste containing heavy metals, into chemically stable mineral materials. The increasing municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is a problem ranging to global concern. Among various MSW treatment methods, incineration is a technology, which may provide an efficient and environmental friendly solution. Problem of this treatment is the production of fly ash. Fly ash may contain large amounts of toxic metal compounds and is considered as hazardous waste with obligation of final disposal into specialized landfills. Three types of materials for immobilization of lead and cadmium have been investigated: glass ceramics, sintered ceramics and geopolymers. We manage to synthetize a glass-ceramic based purely on the incinerated ashes and to decrease the volatilization during its production. Promising results have been obtained for Ca-Mg-Si-O bearing glass-ceramic with high sustainable incorporation of cadmium into crystalline structures and lead into an amorphous structure. Crystalline structure was evaluated being more resistant against acid attack because of its embedding into a glass matrix that generates a double protection. The future research should be done on possibility obtaining this phase by addition of commercial oxides into fly ash. Sintered ceramic investigated was based on Ba-Mg-Ti-O system. We obtained three mineral phases presented in SYNROC (hollandite, perovskite and rutile) where cadmium substituted the site of magnesium while lead occupied the site belonging to barium. The sintered ceramic is satisfactory in terms of toxic elements incorporation and of chemical and mechanical resistance. For production of resistant geopolymer from fly ashes, it is favorable to use ratio L/S =1.2 and drying at room temperature. It was observed that sintering affects the rate of structural reorganization with apparition of sodalite phase (Na4Si3Al3O12Cl), which consists of tunnels where heavy metals can be incorporated. Lead and cadmium stay mainly below the limit of TCLP standards. The heat treatment over 500°C increases density of the sample. When fly ash mixed with other types of waste such as bottom ash or waste glass powder, it is possible to obtain a more resistant. It was found that all three matrices are a good prospect for a stabilization technique with respect to the major pollutants lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)
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Katerina Krausova Rambure. Vers de nouvelles matrices minérales pour l’immobilisation et la valorisation des déchets ultimes de l’incinération des déchets ménagers. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université Paris-Est, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PEST1118⟩. ⟨tel-00975213⟩

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