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Astronomy and Astrophysics 543 (2012) A140
The molecular gas content of the Pipe Nebula I. Direct evidence of outflow-generated turbulence in B59?
A. Duarte-Cabral 1, 2, 3, 4, A. Chrysostomou, N. Peretto 5, G. A. Fuller, B. Matthews, G. Schieven, G. R. Davis

The Pipe Nebula is a molecular cloud hosting the B59 region as its only active star-forming clump. While the particular importance of outflows in active star forming regions is subject of debate, the quiet nature of the gas in B59 makes it a good site to directly see the impact of protostellar feedback on the quiescent dense gas. Using HARP at the JCMT, we mapped the B59 region with the J=3-2 transition of 12CO to study the kinematics and energetics of the outflows, and 13CO and C18O to study the overall dynamics of the ambient cloud, the physical properties of the gas, and the hierarchical structure of the region. The B59 region has a total of 30Msun of cold and quiescent material, mostly gravitationally bound, with narrow line widths throughout. Such low levels of turbulence in non-star-forming sites of B59 are indicative of the intrinsic initial conditions of the cloud. On the other hand, close to the forming protostars the impact of the outflows is observed as a localised increase of both line widths from 0.3 km/s to 1 km/s, and 13CO excitation temperatures by 2-3K. The impact of the outflows is also evident in the low column density material which shows signs of being pushed, shaped and carved by the outflow bow shocks as they pierce their way out of the cloud. Much of this structure is readily apparent in a dendrogram analysis of the cloud. B59's low mass, intrinsically quiescent gas and small number of protostars, allows the identification of specific regions of the outflows' interaction with the dense gas. Our study suggests that outflows are an important mechanism in injecting and sustaining supersonic turbulence at sub-parsec scales. We find that only a fraction of the outflow energy is deposited as turbulent energy of the gas. This turbulent energy is sufficient to slow down the collapse of the region.
1 :  Observatoire aquitain des sciences de l'univers (OASU)
CNRS : UMS2567 – INSU – Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux I
2 :  Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1
Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux I
3 :  Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux (LAB)
CNRS : UMR5804 – INSU – Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux I
4 :  Laboratoire d'astrodynamique, d'astrophysique et d'aéronomie de bordeaux (L3AB)
CNRS : UMR5804 – INSU – Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux I
5 :  Astrophysique Interactions Multi-échelles (AIM - UMR 7158)
CNRS : UMR7158 – INSU – Université Paris VII - Paris Diderot – CEA : DSM/IRFU
Planète et Univers/Astrophysique/Astrophysique stellaire et solaire

Physique/Astrophysique/Astrophysique stellaire et solaire
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