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Planetary and Space Science 67, 1 (2012) 1-13
The influence of mineralogy on recovering organic acids from Mars analogue materials using the "one-pot" derivatization experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite
F. Stalport 1, 2, D. P. Glavin 2, J. L. Eigenbrode 2, D. Bish 3, D. Blake 4, P. Coll 1, 5, Cyril Szopa 6, 7, 8, A. Buch 9, A. Mcadam 2, J. P. Dworkin 2, P. R. Mahaffy 2

The search for complex organic molecules on Mars, including important biomolecules such as amino acids and carboxylic acids will require a chemical extraction and a derivatization step to transform these organic compounds into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). We have developed a "one-pot" extraction and chemical derivatization protocol using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF) for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment instrument suite on NASA's the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The temperature and duration of the derivatization reaction, pre-concentration of chemical derivatives, and gas chromatographic separation parameters have been optimized under SAM instrument design constraints. MTBSTFA/DMF extraction and derivatization at 300 °C for several minutes of a variety of terrestrial Mars analogue materials facilitated the detection of amino acids and carboxylic acids in a surface soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert and a carbonate-rich stromatolite sample from Svalbard. However, the rapid reaction of MTBSTFA with water in several analogue materials that contained high abundances of hydrated minerals, and the possible deactivation of derivatized compounds by iron oxides, as detected by XRD/XRF using the CheMin field unit Terra, proved to be highly problematic for the direct extraction of organics using MTBSTFA. The combination of pyrolysis and two different wet-chemical derivatization methods employed by SAM should enable a wide range of organic compounds to be detected by GCMS if present on Mars.
1 :  Laboratoire inter-universitaire des systèmes atmosphèriques (LISA)
CNRS : UMR7583 – INSU – Université Paris VII - Paris Diderot – Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne (UPEC)
2 :  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)
3 :  Indiana University
Indiana University
4 :  NASA Ames Research Center (NASA - ARC)
5 :  Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 (UPEC UP12)
Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne (UPEC) – Communauté Université Paris-Est
6 :  Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS)
CNRS : UMR8190 – Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) - Paris VI – Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (UVSQ) – INSU
7 :  Institut Pierre-Simon-Laplace (IPSL)
CNRS : FR636 – Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] – CEA – CNES – INSU – Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) - Paris VI – Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (UVSQ) – École normale supérieure [ENS] - Paris
8 :  Université Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines (UVSQ)
Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (UVSQ)
9 :  Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés et Matériaux - EA 4038 (LGPM)
Ecole Centrale Paris
Planète et Univers/Astrophysique/Planétologie et astrophysique de la terre

Physique/Astrophysique/Planétologie et astrophysique de la terre
Mars – SAM – MSL – Derivatization – Organic matter